Approximately 12% of women in the United States older than age 18 years have diabetes. Additionally, an approximate 47 million women older than 18 years have prediabetes. The prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus in women of reproductive age has been reported to be from 3% to 7%. Type 2 diabetes occurs in 1% to 2% of all pregnancies, conferring a significantly greater maternal and fetal risk than gestational diabetes mellitus. Knowledge about screening recommendations, diagnostic criteria, and management of type 2 diabetes and prediabetes is needed to prevent complications and to help reproductive-age women with these conditions to develop a healthy reproductive plan.